What is the Servqual Model? 10 Basic Components of Servqual

Servqual model is a typical model used to evaluate the service quality of enterprises. Using a service quality evaluation model will help businesses determine their position in the market and find ways to improve services. Let's learn more about this model with Viindoo software through the following article content.

What is the Servqual Model?

Servqual stands for Service Quality. Accordingly, the Servqual model helps businesses capture and measure customer service quality. This model is often used in service industries such as restaurants, hotels, banks, etc. thanks to its accuracy.

The Servqual model was developed by American marketing gurus Valarie Zeithaml, Parasuraman, and Leonard Berry in 1988. The model was originally used in the development of production and product quality control systems. Over time, businesses began to pay attention and used Servqual to improve the quality of related services. Companies believe that improving service quality can give them a competitive edge and effectively retain customers.

The Servqual model mainly applies qualitative analysis and has been refined to be applicable in many different service industries. This model divides services into 5 main items to measure, including:

  • Reliability
  • Assurance 
  • Tangible
  • Empathy
  • Responsiveness
Servqual modelThe Servqual model divides service into five dimensions to measure.

5 Quality of Service Gaps in Servqual

The primary measure of the Servqual model is the gap between customers' expectations of the service and the actual experiences they receive. This gap has a close relationship with customer satisfaction when using the service. The smaller the gap, the higher the satisfaction level. The goal of the business is to close this gap as small as possible.

Therefore, the Servqual model has identified 5 possible gaps between customer expectations and the actual service quality that businesses serve. Those distances are:

  • Gap in the perception of the business about customers: This gap occurs when the company has not carefully studied the needs or wants of customers with the service provided or lacks an understanding of the market.
  • Gap in service standards: Businesses shape their own thinking about what customers expect from the service provided. In case this prediction is not correct and unrelated to customer expectations, the business may develop a service model with poor quality standards.
  • Gap in service delivery: This gap occurs when businesses provide services that do not match the expectations of customers, or the standards set out.
  • Gap in communication: This occurs when businesses promise services they can't deliver, or their marketing messages give customers false expectations. This will lead to a large gap between customer experience and expectations, making customers think that the business is exaggerating the quality of service to deceive them.
  • Gap in satisfaction: This gap originates from the overall difference between customers' expectations and actual perceptions of the service. This distance is directly affected by the four distances above. Customers will judge the quality of service provided based on the difference between expectations and actual experience.
Servqual modelThe evaluation criterion of the Servqual model is the gap between expectation and reality..

10 service quality perception components in the Servqual model

The first studies following the Servqual model were conducted specifically for banking, telecommunications, and maintenance services. Then from a 100-item questionnaire, Parasuraman and his team pulled out 25 important items for services in general. In the end, the masters who created this model selected 10 components that play an important role in this evaluation model. These components include:

  1. Reliability: Whether the business has the ability to perform the service exactly as promised to the customer, including the company's ability to complete the service on time, consistently, and without error remaining at all times.
  2. Service delivery capacity: Does the business have the key knowledge and skills to provide services to customers? This is reflected in the way employees communicate and work with customers.
  3. Polite attitude: Businesses have a warm and respectful attitude towards customers. In addition, when employees are dressed uniformly and neatly, it also shows respect to customers.
  4. Accessibility: This aspect is concerned with how easily and conveniently customers can use the services that the business provides. This includes access to services over the phone, waiting times to receive service and the location of service providers. 
  5. Tangibility: This aspect deals with the company’s aesthetic things (website look, logo, etc.). Does the company's aesthetic appeal to customers? Tangibles can also refer to other elements such as facilities or equipment.
  6. Communicability: This refers to the clarity and intelligibility of information provided to customers. Businesses need a variety of communication languages to be able to meet the needs of customers around the world. The information provided can be about service and costs, quality complaints, or related inquiries.
  7. Credibility: Enterprises receive trust from customers through corporate branding or the way service providers work with customers.
  8. Security: This represents the assurance of security and confidentiality of customers' private information. For example, is the management of customer data using the guaranteed service? Are the facilities sturdy enough and secure?
  9. Responsiveness: Businesses are always ready to serve customers and respond to their needs and desires.
  10. Understanding customers: Services providers understand the needs and want of customers. This is reflected in the fact that businesses put effort into customer market research, and personalized customer experience when using their services.
Servqual modelThe evaluation criterion of the Servqual model is the gap between expectation and reality.

 Learn More: What is Customer Insight? How to accurately identify customer insights

Apply Parasuraman's Servqual model

Services play an important role in creating loyal customers and enhancing the reputation of the business. When customers feel unsatisfied with what is provided, they will tend to switch to other companies services. The Servqual model helps businesses identify customer expectations, thereby developing plans to improve service quality.

This model can be widely applied in all fields, from goods production to restaurants, spas, banks, etc. However, each field will have its own unique factors and different customer markets. Therefore, businesses need to pay attention to adjusting the model to suit the type of service provided.

Servqual modelThe Servqual model can help businesses define what their customers want.

The content of the above article has provided full information about the Servqual model, including the 5 gaps and components of customer perception of the service. Viindoo hopes that businesses will be able to develop a service model that meets the needs of customers.

Continue With:

What is the Servqual Model? 10 Basic Components of Servqual
Viindoo Technology Joint Stock Company, Amber Nguyen January 18, 2023