# What is capital on balance sheet? How to calculate it?

Capital on balance sheet is presented on a company's balance sheet and you need to have a clear understanding of it. Failing to do so could negatively affect your perception of your company's financial performance. But, don't be fear to be missing out, Viindoo provides valuable knowledge on this topic in the article below.

## What is capital?

Capital refers to the resources that a company uses to generate revenue. It includes all of the assets that a company owns, such as cash, inventory, equipment, and property. Additionally, it encompasses any money that a company borrows from creditors and shareholders, such as loans or investments. In simple terms, capital represents the net worth of a company. It is what is left over after subtracting liabilities from assets. A company's capital is used to finance its operations, invest in growth opportunities, and pay dividends to shareholders.

The capital structure of a business is analyzed through the balance sheet, which separates assets, liabilities, and equity. Debt financing involves borrowing money that needs to be repaid over time, while equity financing involves selling stock shares and is reflected in the equity section of the balance sheet. Key metrics used to evaluate business capital include weighted average cost of capital, debt to equity ratio, debt to capital ratio, and return on equity. Debt capital generally offers lower returns and comes with strict repayment conditions.

## What are types of capital?

When you hear the word "capital" in the context of a company, you might think of cash or money in the bank. But on a balance sheet, capital can refer to a range of financial assets that a company has. This includes not only cash but also investments, stocks, facilities, and equipment.

There are four main types of capital that a company can have: working capital, equity capital, debt capital, and trading capital. Each type serves a different purpose and provides a different view of a company's financial situation.

### Working capital

Working capital is calculated as:

Working capital = Current assets - Current Liabilities

Working capital is an essential type of capital because it shows how much money a company has after taking into account what needs to be paid off in loans or other expenses after one year. It's calculated by subtracting the value of liabilities from the value of assets. This type of capital is different from the others because it reflects the amount of money a company has left to work with after accounting for its obligations.

Working capital is an essential type of capital

### Equity capital

Equity capital is gained when a company issues stock in exchange for a monetary investment. It represents the money that has been put into the company by its shareholders, and the company doesn't have to repay it like it would with debt capital. Equity capital gives a view of the company's financial performance through the eyes of its shareholders.

Equity capital represents the money that has been put into the company by its shareholders

### Debt capital

Debt capital represents money that a company has borrowed and will eventually have to repay. While it may provide a boost of cash in the short term, it doesn't reflect the company's actual financial assets as it needs to be repaid eventually. These amounts can come from a range of sources: Banks, Credit cards, Loan programs, Venture capital, Bond issuance

Debt capital represents money that a company has borrowed

Trading capital is used by companies to buy and sell various assets, such as stocks or commodities, in order to make a profit. It represents the company's willingness to take risks and invest in new opportunities.

Having a clear understanding of the different types of capital and how they are represented on a balance sheet is essential for evaluating a company's financial health. This knowledge allows investors, shareholders, and managers to make informed decisions about the company's future and help ensure its long-term success.

Trading capital is used by companies to buy and sell various assets

## Which capital appears in balance sheet?

### Share Capital

This represents the money raised by the company by selling shares to investors. Share capital is divided into two categories: authorized share capital and issued share capital. The authorized share capital is the maximum number of shares a company can issue, while the issued share capital is the actual number of shares sold to investors.

### Retained Earnings

This represents the accumulated profits earned by the company that have not been distributed to shareholders as dividends. Retained earnings are reinvested back into the business to fund growth opportunities or pay off debt.

### Reserves

This represents any additional funds set aside by the company for specific purposes, such as contingencies, future expansion, or shareholder distributions.

## How to calculate capital on the Balance Sheet

To calculate capital on the balance sheet, you need to add up the value of all the components mentioned above. Here's the formula for calculating capital:

Capital = Share Capital + Retained Earnings + Reserves

Let's take an example to illustrate this formula. Suppose a company has the following balance sheet:

• Assets Liabilities and Equity: \$500,000
• Accounts Payable: \$50,000
• Bank Loan: \$100,000
• Share Capital: \$200,000
• Retained Earnings: \$150,000
• Reserves: \$100,000

Using the formula, we can calculate the capital as follows:

Capital = Share Capital + Retained Earnings + Reserves

Capital = \$200,000 + \$150,000 + \$100,000 = \$450,000

Therefore, the capital of the company is \$450,000.

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## FAQs

The three sources of capital are:

1. Debt: This involves borrowing money which must be repaid with interest, such as loans from banks or bonds issued to investors.
2. Equity: This refers to ownership in a company, where investors buy shares and become part owners entitled to a portion of the profits and a say in decision-making.
3. Retained earnings: This is capital generated by a company's profits which are reinvested rather than paid out to shareholders or used to pay off debt.

Reserves are funds set aside by the company for specific purposes, while retained earnings represent the accumulated profits earned by the company that have not been distributed to shareholders.

Authorized share capital is the maximum number of shares a company can issue, while issued share capital is the actual number of shares sold to investors.

No, capital is not a current asset. Capital refers to the total investment or funds provided by the owners or shareholders of a company, and it is reported under the equity section of the balance sheet rather than being classified as a current asset.

Using accounting software to handle capital on balance sheet allows companies to effortlessly and precisely monitor this element and create a balance sheet promptly. This empowers businesses to make informed choices and modify their approaches based on their financial status. For further consultation regarding our VIindoo Accounting software, please reach out to us.